First of all, what is a segment? We often talk about booking, segments, etc. but I have not yet provided a clear explanation of a segment other than that a booking on average has 2 ½ segments.
When we talk about segments, we usually mean active segments. A segment means…
- … for airline bookings: each separate flight segment reservation identified by a separate flight number in a PNR, multiplied by the number of passengers booked in such PNR for such flight segment.
- … for hotel bookings: each separate reservation processed through the respective GDS, regardless of the number of rooms or the number of persons or the duration of the stay.
- … for car rental bookings: each separate reservation processed through the respective GDS, regardless of the number of vehicles or persons or the duration of the rental.
- … for cruise bookings: each separate cabin reservation, regardless of the number of travelers or the duration of the cruise.
- … for tour bookings: each separate reservation, regardless of the number of travelers or the duration of the tour.
Per definition, a passive booking or passive segment is a segment entered in a GDS that does not result in a ticket being issued. There are typically three situations when passive segments are booked:
- basic passive segment
- passive segment with due or paid fare or taxes from a refund or exchange
- passive segment as a retention segment
Blog Series: Travel Technology for Dummies
- What Is Full Content?
- What Is a Booking Reference or PNR?
- What Is Overbooking?
- What Is a Passenger Service System (PSS)?
- What Are Booking, Waitlists, Tickets, Codeshare & Interlining?
- What Are Active and Passive Segments?
- What Are Incentives, Commissions & Overrides?
- What Is a ‘Married Segment’?
- Blockchain in Travel: All You Need to Know – for Now
- What Is the Difference Between Fares, Rates and Tariffs?
- What Is NDC?
- What Is Continuous Pricing?
- What Is Direct vs. Indirect Distribution?
Most commonly, passive segments are used by agents or online booking tools to generate itineraries, make notes, and provide information to the back-office and/or expense management systems. A typical use for the latter are for instance bookings created outside the GDS (e.g. bookings on an airline website) to be captured and observed by the travel management program. In such a case, a GDS is used more or less like a database. Other 3rd party systems (back-office, expense management, security companies, etc.) hook into the GDSs and retrieve PNR information on all the bookings which are captured there. If bookings are created outside the GDS, they will not be picked up by those 3rd party systems unless a passive segment is created (it can’t be an active segment as otherwise the GDS would action on it and e.g. create a booking, which would then be a double booking – one created by the GDS and one directly on the airline website in the example above).
Billing for Passive Segments
GDSs may charge separately for passive segments, especially if they are used in the way just described where the GDS is used as a database while no booking is created which they would get paid for by the airline. On the other hand, GDSs provide a limited number of such passive segments for free in response to supplier concerns that agents should not have to pay the GDS to import a PNR when a passenger was booked and ticketed by the supplier and then sought the services of an agency. Airlines sometimes make clear of this fact by advising their users that when they want to keep track of a booking for administrative purposes, they should use non-billable status codes which include AMADEUS – GK, APOLLO – BK, SABRE – YK and WORLDSPAN TVL Air.
Some Sabre specifics: The status code GK is used to create passive flight segments for ticketing purposes only. The status code YK is used to create passive flight segments for itinerary printing and invoicing purposes only. It is advised to never use passive status codes to sell flight segments as they do not generate sell messages to the airlines.
- Active air segments: /PNRViewRS/AirGroup/Flight [ElementNumber=6,15-17]
- Passive air segment: /PNRViewRS/Passive/Flight [ElementNumber=13]
- Active hotel segments (HHL): /PNRViewRS/LandGroup/HotelSegment [ElementNumber=5]
- Passive hotel segments: /PNRViewRS/MiscellaneousGroup/HotelPassiveSegment [ElementNumber=3-4]
- Active car segments (CCR): /PNRViewRS/LandGroup/HotelSegment [ElementNumber=7-10]
- Passive car segments: /PNRViewRS/MiscellaneousGroup/CarPassiveSegment [ElementNumber=12]
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