The Difference Between CRS and GDS in the Travel Industry

Earlier I talked about the structure of the travel industry. We saw how the industry can be divided into five parts: Suppliers, inventory management, distribution, sales and market.

Today I would like to just focus on the distribution and the inventory management and therefore on the differences between CRS (central reservation systems) and GDS (global distribution systems).

In the travel distribution we can find lots of many to many relationships instead of 1:1 relationships. So how do these relationships look like? Well, one supplier provides its fare to many distributors. A traveler on the other side has the opportunity to book inventory from multiple suppliers. How this works? Well, that’s easy to explain: You might want to take a flight from the United States to Europe with your favorite airline and from there you might want to go on vacation and visit Asia. But regarding the second flight, you might prefer a lower price, so you might want to choose another airline.

In this example, you might book your first flight directly via the website of the provider and the second flight direct via an inventory system. That’s why an agency can use e.g. Sabre as a distribution system for booking a Lufthansa flight, which Passenger Name Record (PNR) is then sitting in the Amadeus reservation system (inventory system). As the inventory is managed by the central reservation system (also known as computer reservation system), I would like to shortly give you some information on this. CRS were originally operated by airlines and later extended for the use of travel agencies. So what is a CRS? It is a computerized system used to e.g. store and retrieve passenger information related to air travel, hotels, rail, car rentals and anything like that.

CRS and GDS as two distinct steps

For a long time the GDS had a dominant position in the travel industry, but in order to bypass them and consequently avoid their fees, airlines have started to distribute flights directly from their websites. Another option to bypass them would be to use direct connections to sales entities such as travel agencies. Today approximately every five years GDS are in heavy negotiations about (full) content and distributions fees with airlines.

From time to time airlines and CRSs are also discussing a switch to a new hosting system (inventory system), but this is far less often since it involves a huge technical migration with many risks. American Airlines recently abandoned their envisioned migration from Sabre to HP. Mergers sometimes also require a transition to a combined CRS. So what is important: The GDS usually operate the CRS and that is why most people consider the terms GDS and CRS synonymous. However I don’t! I consider those as two different steps of value creation: inventory management (CRS) and distribution (GDS).

You need more information like how a PNR could be included in the example from above? Just follow my blog – I will get to that later…

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2 thoughts “The Difference Between CRS and GDS in the Travel Industry”

  1. MEME


    1. Michael Strauss

      Michael Strauss Post author

      A GDS is the Global Distribution System and the major ones are Amadeus, Sabre (incl. Abacus), and Travelport (incl. Apollo, Galileo and Worldspan). The term CRS is not used so much any longer as it became part of a bigger system: the Passenger Service System (PSS) which usually comprises of the CRS, an airline inventory system and the departure control system (DCS). Typical examples of a CRS are Shares from Hewlett-Packard (formerly EDS), but more importantly SabreSonic (Sabre) or Altéa for traditional carriers. For low cost carriers there is also Navitaire (like Altéa owned by Amadeus). I will post additional blogs to this topic so stay tuned. Also my book “Value Creation for Travel Distribution” ( provides a good insight and is highly recommended for tourism students as well as newcomers to the industry. I used to explain all this to my interns and colleagues before I decided to write a book. Also take a look at

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